Cooking methods include baking, grilling, frying, sautéing, boiling, steaming, roasting, etc. These methods can be used to prepare a wide variety of dishes and can greatly affect the taste, texture, and appearance of the food. The different methods of cooking are as follows:
1. BOILING: Boiling is cooking by immersing the food in a pan of liquid, which must be kept boiling all the time at the temperature is 100°C (212°F)
2. BLANCHING: Blanching is used when the food needs to be precooked or partly cooked. Vegetable Blanching like Broccoli, Cauliflower, etc can be blanched. Temperature set point: 90°C - 100°C
3. POACHING: Poaching is cooked gently in water which is just below boiling point (93°C – 95°C) the liquid is half as close to boiling point as possible. Without there being any perceptible movement of the liquid. Poached eggs and poached fish are some examples.
4. STEAMING: Steaming is cooking by moist heat, i.e. steam direct or indirect. It is a good method that is easily digested. Nourishment or flavor is retained in the food and usually, food cannot be easily overcooked Temperature Set Point: 100°C. Idly, Rice, Momos, etc. are some examples.
5. STEWING: Stewing is gently simmering in a small quantity of water, stock, or sauce until the cut food items are tender, and both liquid and food are served together. Stewing is done in a covered saucepan or casserole on top of the cooker, or in the oven but always at a low temperature (140°C to 170°C). It is a time-consuming method of cooking. White Stew, Brown Stew, Irish Stew are some examples.
6. BRAISING: It is the combined method of roasting and stewing. It is a long, slow & gentle process. This moist process during which commodities particularly covered with a liquid are cooked in an enclosed container in an oven. Braising is usually applied to larger, tougher joints of meats, game, poultry, and occasionally fish and vegetables. Braised Chicken and Braised Cabbage are some examples. Temperature set point: 185°F (85°C) and 195°F (90°C)
7. ROASTING: The term roasting was originally applied to the cooking of large pieces of meat on it split over an open fire, a practice that would be reasonably called grilling or perhaps barbequing today. Temperature for roastings varies from 190°C to 220°C. Traditional methods of roasting practiced at present are:
Tandoori method of roasting. Temperature can reach up to 400°C to 500°C.
8. POELING: It is similar to pot roasting. The difference is that it is cooked entirely in butter using poultry. Temperature controlled at 75°C to 85°C.
9. GRILLING: Cooking by the grilling method began years ago when meat was first placed near or over an open fire. It has steadily advanced through the year's most modern gas, electric grills, and infrared models. The food is placed on grill bars and subjected to the action of radiation which could be below or above. For grilling the temperature should be 400-450°F (200°C - 230°C) for high, 350-400°F (175°C - 200°C) for medium-high, 300-350°F (145°C - 175°C) for medium and 250-300°F (120°C - 145°C) for low heat.
10. BROILING: Broiling is cooking by direct heat and is used synonymously with grilling. It could be done by a source of heat above. It is a dry cooking method and can be done on a grid or pan-boiled where the food is cooked uncovered. The temperature ranges are usually 400°F (200°C) medium to 450°F (220°C) and high ranges from 500°F (260°C) to 550°F (280°C).
11. BAKING: baking is cooking food by the action of dry heat in an oven. The degree of dryness or heat may be modified by the amount of steam reduced to the items baked. An oven has a range of 350–375°F (180–190°C), and a hot oven has a temperature set to 400–450°F (200–230°C). A fast oven has a range of 450-500°F (230–260°C) for the typical temperature. Bread rolls, cakes, pastries, pudding, potatoes, and other vegetables are baked.
12. FRYING: Food is fried when it is placed or immersed in oil or fat at a sufficiently high temperature used to brown the surface at least and particularly completely cook the interior of the food frying adds flavor to otherwise bland and tender food it also creates a crisp crust texture. There are two types of frying.
Deep frying: it is cooking food by immersing it in fat. 350°F (177°C) and 375°F (191°C). Also can reach up to 400°F (205°C).
Shallow frying: Cooking it with a little fat in a frying pan or sauté pan or a griddle. 160–190°C (320–374°F). Also can reach up to 150°C (302°F).
13. SAUTEING: It comes under shallow frying. The word sautéing comes from the French word sautoir which means to jump. Temperature for sauteing starts from 320°F to 350°F (160°C to 175°C).
14. SEARING: Searing is a cooking technique that exposes ingredients (typically meat) to a high temperature to create a crisp browning on the outside. This method enhances the flavor of the dish and is often done with a small amount of oil, butter, or fat. (To brown the surface of food quickly at a high temperature). The temperature range is about 300°F to 500°F (160°C - 260°C).